Pain Awareness Empowerment

For a healthy person, pain is a warning signal that something is wrong. For a chronic pain patient, it is a state of being. A VERY unpleasant state of being, but one none the less they identify with because they cannot avoid it. They wake up in pain, work all day in pain, sleep in pain if they can sleep at all.

POPF September is pain awareness month

POPF September is pain awareness month

Living in pain is not a small feat for anyone. Existing this world, transgressing the difficulties of being disabled due to an invisible illness or even those with it visible, it is a difficult and awkward time of life. So groups like iPain and US Pain Foundation have a month they celebrate those warriors who keep on fighting, called pain awareness month. That month started yesterday.

We all likely know someone in pain, but may not even know it. So I challenge each person to post something about how you support those with chronic pain, as you would someone with mental illness or diabetes. Help them know that they can come to you if they want to talk about it.

The best thing we can do in our lives is empowering others and empower ourselves. Learning doesn’t have to stop when we graduate high school or college. We have opportunities EVERY DAY. So I challenge you to LEARN about others conditions. You might just save a life knowing more about someone else and what they deal with.

Omaha drug trial shows promise for pain condition

OMAHA, Neb. —
An Omaha researcher is conducting a drug trial for a drug that’s already being prescribed for a chronic pain condition for patients in Europe.
Dr. Robert Recker with Creighton University is looking for patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome to test the drug which comes from a class of drugs normally used to treat osteoporosis. Recker said CRPS is rather "An area of the body starts to have really severe pain for no reason. You look at it on x-ray, no matter how you look at it, you don’t find anything wrong,” said Recker who’s testing an intravenous treatment called Neridronic Acid.
“I can't deny the fact that the study in Italy cause it to be approved for it. Apparently it removes the pain quite strikingly,” said Recker.
Ron Dulas, of Lincoln has lived with CRPS for more than six years, with debilitating pain in his leg, travelling to his hands. The pain started after back surgery, for no apparent reason.
“It was horrendous. It's like someone took a hammer and just smacked your foot,” said Dulas, who’s on a number of prescription pain relievers and has been for years. He eventually had to quit his job restoring furniture at the State Capital Building, in Lincoln.
“It stops you in your tracks, you cannot breathe,” said Dulas.
Dulas was hoping to be approved for the drug trial which includes 4 infusions over the course of a week, along with vitamin supplements and clinic visits for a year.
“To get out of the situation I’m in, I’ll do anything,” said Dulas. Who learned just days ago, because he has a pacemaker he cannot be part of the trial, but may benefit from the drug if it’s approved for use in the U.S.
If you know a person living with Complex Regional Pain Sydrome, they can contact Dr. Recker’s officer for more information on the study. The phone number is 402-280-Bone, or 402-280-2663. All expenses are covered for participants.

Original post and video found here: www.ketv.com/article/omaha-drug-trial-hopes-to-ease-pain/11644837
Last Updated when copied over: 10:47 PM CDT Aug 6, 2017 by Julie Cornell

Medicine Running Out, Funds Low

Let’s face it, we are not all blessed with great genetics and many of us need medicine. We aren’t all healthy, even before the CRPS. Some might have heart problems, some might be diabetic, some might have been fighting cancer. But for those few blessed before but are now fighting the many comorbidities of our condition, we have medication that’s required to function what little we can.

Question about Medicine

Question about Medicine

I am blessed with only a traumatic brain injury and heart issues that require medicine. I say blessed because many of our pain brothers and sisters are fighting so many more issues than I. But that doesn’t change the fact without these medicines my life will be directly impacted. I NEED them to function.

Two months ago I became not only broke, but destitute. I cannot afford an apartment let alone my TBI medicine. It is $270 a month with most pharmacies, $220 was the cheapest I found a few years ago from a wonderful mail order place in Iowa, Scott’s Pharmacy. Without this medicine I cannot read and at times I’ll “fade out” because I have mini seizures. Nothing serious to most but could be detrimental if at the wrong time like when driving. A while so far I’ve been lucky, but that won’t be forever.

So in my extremely rough spot I searched for alternative options again; I found Blink. Now, please note, they provide incentives for sharing your code to your friends. They provide money incentives for testimonials for their site. I am doing neither. Because this article is for you. Not for me. Our reason for sharing this information is in hopes that if you’re in dire need and want options that you have a few right here in this article.

Now Scott’s Pharmacy is a bulk ordering company similar to Blink. And I know as a fact they must follow HIPAA guidelines and protect your patient information. But Blink, as I’m about to tell you, while EXCEPTIONALLY less in cost, I’m unsure of their obligations to protect your medicinal privacy as a third party provider who refills the supply your local provider might fill.

So I will err on the side of caution and suggest until you verify your personal information is protected, do not order medicine you might be concerned about someone knowing you are on. I have not yet found any information to say either way. But better extra caution then surprises, right?

Now I have Tramadol as as prescription and I know it’s available through them. But with the new and improved war on chronic pain patients, I do not know if certain opioids are even found in these lists. But again, I’d err on the side of caution and not order anything unless you’re OK with the world knowing you’re on that medicine. (Let’s be honest hackers happen.)

So, my $220 prescription, was less than $28.

Ok stop and read that again. Almost 1/10 of the cost.

My Atenolol for my heart, a $4 a month prescription at Walmart, was less than $8 for a 3 month supply.

Now, they may not work with your local provider, you might have to drive 50-100 miles one way to get the medicine. But even with a truck getting 10 mpg, that’s 20 gallons of gas round trip. If gas is $4 a gallon, that’s $80. If you have a medicine like my Keppra, your STILL saving $100 driving all that way.

But there is options out there. And that’s why we’re sharing about them. Because I was lucky and fell across this and had NOTHING to lose if they stole my $28. But they didn’t. And it’s helped improve my situation, despite losing everything else.

And for those who want to try and help a fellow patient out, blinks referral code appears to be 8 characters, all uppercase, numbers and letters only.

Just saying, $5 for a random patient could be just what they needed. (And again, no not sharing my code.)

[Study] Cannabinoids May Treat Neuropathic Symptoms and Neuroinflammatory Responses

Agonists of the CB2 receptor – such as cannabis-derived cannabinoids – may provide a treatment option for neuropathic symptoms and neuroinflammatory responses, according to a new study published by the European Journal of Neuroscience. The study was e-published ahead of print by the U.S. National Institute of Health.

“Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has emerged as a promising target for treating different neuropathic pain syndromes”, states the study’s abstract. “In neuropathic pain models, activated microglia expressing CB2 receptors are seen in the spinal cord.”

With this in mind, researchers hypothesized that a CB2 agonist could “modulate neuroinflammation and neuropathic pain in an ischemia model of CRPS [complex regional pain syndrome]by regulating CB2 and CX3CR1 signaling.”

Using chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP) as a model of CRPS, researchers used rats to determine the potential benefits of a selective CB2 agonist meant to mimic the effects of cannabinoids.

Rats in the CPIP group exhibited significant hyperemia and edema of the ischemic hindpaw and spontaneous pain behaviors (hindpaw shaking and licking), whereas “intraperitoneal administration of MDA7 (a selective CB2 agonist) attenuated mechanical allodynia induced by CPIP.”

MDA7 treatment was found to “interfere with early events in the CRPS-I neuroinflammatory response by suppressing peripheral edema, spinal microglial activation and expression of CX3CR1 and CB2 receptors on the microglia in the spinal cord. MDA7 also mitigated the loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers induced by CPIP.”

The study concludes; “Our findings suggest that MDA7, a novel CB2 agonist, may offer an innovative therapeutic approach for treating neuropathic symptoms and neuroinflammatory responses induced by CRPS-I in the setting of ischemia and reperfusion injury.”

The full study can be found by clicking here.

Written by  on 

 

NOTE: Please remember to follow the laws of your state when it comes to your pharmaceutical care. Medical cannabis is not legal in all states in all forms, so be aware of what your state limitations are.

Six Keys to a Safe, Allergy-Free Halloween

Halloween can be really scary for kids with asthma and allergies — and for their parents — unless they take precautions, an allergist advises.

Have a safe and Happy Halloween

Have a safe and Happy Halloween

“Keep certain common sense tips in mind as you prepare for the holiday,” said Bryan Martin, president of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI).

“A little preparation can ensure your little ones don’t suffer from allergic reactions or asthma attacks,” Martin said in an ACAAI news release. To help parents prepare, he offered these six tips:

  • Masks can be scary. For kids with asthma, try to choose a costume that doesn’t require a mask. If a child insists on one, it should not be tight-fitting or obstruct breathing.
  • Halloween makeup sometimes causes allergic reactions. Use only high-quality, hypoallergenic makeup, and test it on a small patch of skin in advance to see if it triggers a reaction.
  • Skip the trick-or-treating. Parents of kids with food allergies might want to consider alternatives such as a scavenger hunt, scary movie or Halloween party with safe treats.
  • Be prepared for emergencies. If trick-or-treating is part of the plan, don’t forget to carry a charged cellphone, emergency epinephrine and a bag of safe treats to nibble along the way. Children with asthma should take their medications and carry their inhaler.
  • Check out the treats. Before kids eat anything they get on their Halloween rounds, parents should throw out any candy that has no label or appears unsafe. Instruct children with allergies on which treats are not safe for them to eat. Parents can drop off allergy-free goodies with neighbors in advance so young kids can trick-or-treat safely.
  • Consider offering non-food treats. A growing number of families are trying to raise allergy awareness by placing a teal-painted pumpkin outside that lets trick-or-treaters with food allergies know you have non-food treats for them.

More information

Safe Kids Worldwide has more Halloween safety tips.

SOURCE: American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, news release, Oct. 3, 2016

Robert Preidt (HealthDay News)Last Updated: Oct 10, 2016
Copyright © 2016 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

Ketamine Infusions Available in Texas

Ketamine has become a front running line of defense for both during necessary surgeries and as the other medicines fail to relieve symptoms for CRPS patients. For those who might not know, there is a member of the community who is one of the first American’s to undergo the ketamine coma and successfully achieve long term remission, Jonathan Haag. He has not only taken his remission and made an attempt to make a difference for the community by educating health professionals about CRPS, but he himself has become one. Since his procedure, he has gone on to become a registered nurse and will be providing ketamine infusions at his employers office in San Antonio, Texas.

Cost of ketamine

And as such he knows how our community battles with financial battles, he has worked with his employer to get information not only on the financial information we might need ahead of time, but also they are working on discounts for group treatments.

So why group treatments you ask? Getting treatments with someone you trust that understands your pain allows you to not only get discount on your treatments, but allows you to stay together at the hotels while you are recovering together, thus decreasing your travel costs. Add in the factor of having a friend who understands your battles, and your pain, the positive influence alone can help increase your success chances for the treatment.

  • 4 hrs – $500
  • 6 hrs – $750
  • 8 hrs – $900
  • The one hour high dose Johnathan gets is $500 (this is just another example, not recommended for new to ketamine patients)

Who is the provider?

Dr. Ricardo Alvarado, who is providing these services, is also the same doctor who over saw Johnathon’s own treatment when he did his ketamine coma, so this doctor is very familiar with ketamine.

Johnathan recommends that if you should decide you are interested in this, please call the appointment line, 210-910-6653,  and say you are interested in the ketamine infusion when you call. While you are discussing with them your options, also ask about promotions. They may have more than just the group discount available.

Dr. Alvarado’s office also treats fibro, PTSD, phantom limb pain, and migraines with ketamine.

Venn Diagram of Psychoactive Drugs: Ketamine

Venn Diagram of Psychoactive Drugs: Ketamine Resource: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Drug_Chart_Color.jpg

What about insurance?

And the infamous question: what insurance providers do they accept? Because not all of us are in Texas, they are recommending contacting your providers directly to see about pre-approval for the treatment so that you are aware ahead of time if there is any out of pocket expense that would be involved. This will allow for providers to contact their office about access and maybe help some who are from out of state get treatment that might not otherwise be available.

Enrollment of the First Patient in a Phase 3 of AXS-02

NEW YORK, Aug. 10, 2015 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Axsome Therapeutics, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company developing novel therapies for the treatment of pain and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders, today announced the enrollment of the first patient in the CREATE-1 (CRPS Treatment Evaluation 1) study—a Phase 3 trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of AXS-02 (disodium zoledronate) for the treatment of pain associated with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). AXS-02 is a potent osteoclast inhibitor being developed as an oral, targeted, non-opioid, potentially first-in-class therapeutic for chronic pain.

“CRPS patients live with a level of pain that is unimaginable for most of us. As there are no approved treatments for this serious disease, it represents a high unmet medical need,” said Leonardo Kapural, M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Anesthesiology at Wake Forest University, and Clinical Director of the Chronic Pain Center at Wake Forest University Health Sciences Center. “This is an important clinical trial as it may increase the treatment options for those living with CRPS.”

“The Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome Association (RSDSA) supports research to develop better treatments and a cure for this devastating condition,” said Jim Broatch, Executive Vice President and Director of the RSDSA. “Clinical trials such as the CREATE-1 study is an example of the type of research that could yield new options to improve the lives of individuals with CRPS.”

“We are pleased to enroll the first patient in the CREATE-1 trial,” said Randall Kaye, M.D., Chief Medical Officer of Axsome Therapeutics. “This multi-national study will further our understanding of the potential role of AXS-02 in the treatment of pain associated with CRPS. The launch of this Phase 3 trial comes on the heels of our recent FDA Fast Track designation for AXS-02 in CRPS.”

In March of this year, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Fast Track designation for AXS-02 for the treatment of pain associated with CRPS. This designation provides greater access to and more frequent communication with the FDA throughout the entire drug development and review process, with the goal of possibly expediting approval. Fast Track designation also gives Axsome the opportunity to potentially submit sections of the AXS-02 new drug application (NDA) for CRPS on a rolling basis, and allows AXS-02 to be considered for priority review at the time of submission. AXS-02 has also been granted Orphan Drug Designation by the FDA, and Orphan Medicinal Product Designation by the European Medicine Agency (EMA) for the treatment of CRPS.

“As an organization, we aim to research and bring to market innovative therapies for sufferers of chronic pain and CNS diseases,” said Herriot Tabuteau, M.D., Chief Executive Officer of Axsome Therapeutics. “We are committed to working to find solutions for the CRPS patient community.”

About the CREATE-1 Study

This Phase 3 multi-national, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial is designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AXS-02 in the treatment of pain associated with CRPS. The study is expected to enroll 190 patients at sites in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Australia. Eligible patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to be treated with AXS-02 or placebo. The primary efficacy measure is the change in patient reported pain intensity, measured using the 0-10 Numerical Rating Scale (NRS). Secondary outcome measures include assessments of the change in the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) Pain Score, Patients’ and Clinicians’ Global Impression of Change (PGI-C and CGI-C, respectively), quality of life measures, and bone turnover markers.

More information about the CREATE-1 study is available at www.clinicaltrials.gov.

To learn about eligibility, patients can visit www.CRPStrial.com.

About AXS-02

AXS-02 (disodium zoledronate) is a potent osteoclast inhibitor being developed as an oral, targeted, non-opioid, potentially first-in-class therapeutic for chronic pain, including pain associated with CRPS. AXS-02 has a high affinity for bone mineral, and reduces osteoclast activity by inhibiting the farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) enzyme.

AXS-02 is an investigational medication not approved by the FDA. The safety and efficacy of AXS-02 have not yet been established.

 

Source: CRPS in the News
Announcement made: August 10, 2015 06:30 ET by Axsome Therapeutics, Inc.
(Copied as online data is not static and this should be retained, please know, all rights are to the author and original publication)

 

Power of Pain: 9 Tips for Cooking with Chronic Pain – Pain News Network

By: Barby Ingle, Columnist

For those of us living with pain, we wish for a life worth living — one that permits us to enjoy our family and friends.

Preparing and sharing a meal is something I enjoy doing, but pain can make even the simplest cooking tasks more difficult, especially those that affect our hands, fingers, wrists, elbows, and shoulders.

Here are nine tips I’ve learned to make cooking easier:

1. Use pots and pans with two handles

2. Buy a food processor, especially if you have difficulty with manual cooking tasks like chopping, cutting, and slicing.

Choose a food processor that is manageable for you and your physical limitations
Before you buy one, be sure you are able to change the blades easily and remove the plastic bowl and plastic lid from the processor
Consider mini food processors for your needs

3. Use specialty cooking tools such as “Rocker” knives.

The two-handled design adds strength and control to cutting and chopping, while the rocker blade design has the motion built right in.

4. Use a stool to sit on while you prepare and cook food.

Cooking can be a long process, depending on how complicated the meal is you are preparing
When counter work starts to increase your pain or when standing over the stove is wearing you out, be prepared to pull up a stool

5. Crock pot meals

Crock pots are helpful for people with pain to be able to cook nutritious meals, but in less time and more simply.

6. Electric can opener to use on canned food or soups

Soup is simple to prepare and nutritious
Make sure you have canned soups available for when you are having bad pain days or the ingredients to make soup when you don’t feel up to cooking. Soup will warm you and soothe you.
Use a ladle to pour soup into the bowl

7. Double the size of your meals

Create planned leftovers which you can freeze and have available for another day
You will be glad you have nutritious meals in your freezer on days you don’t feel well enough to cook

8. Food Storage

Get food storage containers which are easy for you to open and easy for you to stack
Prepare and store foods which you commonly use and have them in ready-to-eat condition.

9. Organize your kitchen

Get a stove with controls on the front rather than the back
Install cabinet handles which are easy to grasp
Install vertical dividers to store pans and trays so that they are not stacked
Raise the front bottom edge of the refrigerator so it closes automatically
Store frequently used items in cupboards between knee and shoulder height
Store kitchen items near the area they are used
Store spices in a drawer or on the counter rather than in a high cupboard
There are many choices and designs for cooking tools and kitchen aids that can make cooking easier, such as ergonomic, lightweight cooking tools, which have easy grips and non-slip handles.

Spatulas, spoons, ladles, whisks and other cooking tools which feel comfortable in your hand can greatly improve manual dexterity, reduce pain, and compensate for swollen and deformed joints.

What tips have you learned to make cooking easier?

Read more here….

Posted September 18, 2015 copied September 22, 2015
RSD In the News

(Copied as online data is not static and this should be retained, please know, all right are to the author and her original publication)

New Study, Medication Gives Hope to CRPS-RSD Victims – Legal Examiner

Bryan Pope | Attorney • (972) 774-9883

Bryan Pope | Attorney • (972) 774-9883

Axsome Therapeutics, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company dedicated to developing therapies for the treatment of pain and other central nervous system disorders, announced last month that the first patient has been enrolled in the CREATE-1 (CRPS Treatment Evaluation 1) study, a Phase 3 trial evaluating the effectiveness and safety of disodium zoledronate (AXS-02) in the treatment of the pain associated with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD).

The CREATE-1 study is expected to enroll 190 patients at sites in the U.S., Canada, Europe, and Australia. Eligible patients will be treated with either AXS-02 or a placebo, and the primary objective will be to measure the change in patient-reported pain intensity, measured with the Numerical Rating Scale.

FDA Fast Tracks AXS-02

In March 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted “Fast Track” designation to AXS-02 for the treatment of the pain associated with CRPS/RSD. AXS-02 is an osteoclast inhibitor being developed as an oral, non-opiod medication to treat the chronic pain. It is an investigational medication not yet approved by the FDA, and its safety and efficacy have not yet been determined. Read more here…

Source: CRPS In the News

(Copied as online data is not static and this should be retained, please know, all right are to the author and her original publication)

Specific autoantibodies in patients with longstanding CRPS

We recently published a study on antibodies found in the blood of patients with longstanding Complex Regional Pain Syndrome [1].

Antibodies are substances produced by the body’s immune system. Their best-known role is to fight infection. However sometimes they go wrong, and bind to the body’s own cells, causing dysfunction or damage. These latter types of antibodies, which bind to body cells are termed autoantibodies.

Our recent study shows that most patients with longstanding CRPS have special types of autoantibodies in their blood. In contrast, these autoantibodies were not found in healthy volunteers, patients with fibromyalgia, neuropathic pain, or ‘myasthenia gravis’, an immune disease.

We already knew that special autoantibodies are produced by patients with recent onset CRPS [3][see Footnote]. Our new findings are relevant and important, because they demonstrate that autoantibodies are still being produced by people with CRPS as late as several years after injury, i.e. at a time when acute CRPS signs such as strong swelling and redness will have mellowed, and there is an expectation that the injury will have fully healed. The autoantibody presence in such longstanding CRPS shows that the patients’ immune systems remain abnormally activated.

The autoantibodies we identified were found to specifically activate the alpha1a receptor on cell surfaces. This particular receptor has previously been implicated in CRPS, and thus its activation might be relevant to the causes of CRPS. But there was something else – we initially thought that only those CRPS patients who responded to an immune treatment, intravenous immunoglobulin, would have autoantibodies, i.e. no more than 25% of all patients, see my Body in Mind blog August 2010. Yet, we found that, in fact a majority of all patients with longstanding CRPS had these specific autoantibodies in their blood. That meant that although only some patients with longstanding CRPS will respond to intravenous immunoglobulin a much larger group of of patients may have a specific immune dysregulation,.

How might these autoantibodies cause CRPS-related problems? Autoantibodies may bind either to nerve cells, or other cells situated close to nerves and may initiate abnormal sensory and/or motor nerve activation. An example of this type of autoantibody-nerve interaction is known as neuromyotonia, a neurological condition where different types of autoantibodies bind to peripheral motor nerves. The autoantibodies in neuromyotonia bind to the motor nerves and change ‘motor-nerve’ function, giving people abnormal muscle activations. It is thought that the autoantibodies in neuromyotonia may even cause (non-CRPS) neuropathic pain, which is a new field of research.

There are times where there is too much of a good thing, autoantibodies are one of those.

There are times where there is too much of a good thing, autoantibodies are one of those.

Having identified specific alpha 1a autoantibodies in patients’ blood, where do we go from here? We will look more closely at the CRPS immune dysregulation, and also investigate whether some immune procedures and drugs that work in other conditions can reduce CRPS pain. We have already conducted an audit [2], and have started a first trial to test this idea.

Our laboratory results on autoantibodies in longstanding CRPS are preliminary. We have yet to identify the molecular structure (i.e. the sequence of amino acids) against which these antibodies are directed – in fact our results suggest that the antibodies from different patients may bind to slightly different cell structures, having the common ultimate effect to activate alpha 1 receptors. We have also yet to develop a workable autoantibody blood test, as the test which we used is very cumbersome. Finally, but not least of all it will be important to convincingly show how these autoantibodies contribute to CRPS.

Nevertheless, I hope that these recent discoveries may eventually contribute to solve the riddle of what is causing CRPS after trauma, so that we can better treat those patients for whom currently no solution is available.

About Andreas Goebel

Andreas GoebelAndreas Goebel was born and raised in the Rhein/Main area in Southern Germany. He studied Medicine in Würzburg/Germany and started his training in Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine at Würzburg Hospital; he also received a scholarship to study immunology at Harvard Medical School. Having returned to Germany things changed when Andreas met his Irish wife in the US and they ultimately decided to move to the UK. There, he continued his training, first attached to the Oxford rotation, then UCLH, and was appointed Consultant in Pain Medicine in 2007 at the Liverpool Walton Centre, the Country’s largest Pain Medicine department.

Andreas set up the first regional treatment network for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, and also initiated and chaired the UK CRPS Guidance group, which published its comprehensive guidance in 2012). In 2008 he was appointed Assistant Professor (Senior Lecturer) in Pain Medicine at Liverpool University. Andreas’ chief research interest is in how the immune system, and specifically autoantibodies, may contribute to causing chronic pain and how this might translate into new treatments.

Bibliography

[1] Dubuis E, Thompson V, Leite MI, Blaes F, Maihofner C, Greensmith D, Vincent A, Shenker N, Kuttikat A, Leuwer M, Goebel A. Longstanding complex regional pain syndrome is associated with activating autoantibodies against alpha-1a adrenoceptors. Pain 2014;155(11):2408-2417.

[2] Goebel A, Jones S, Oomman S, Callaghan T, Sprotte G. Treatment of long-standing complex regional pain syndrome with therapeutic plasma exchange: a preliminary case series of patients treated in 2008-2014. Pain Med 2014;15(12):2163-2164.

[3] Kohr D, Singh P, Tschernatsch M, Kaps M, Pouokam E, Diener M, Kummer W, Birklein F, Vincent A, Goebel A, Wallukat G, Blaes F. Autoimmunity against the beta(2) adrenergic receptor and muscarinic-2 receptor in complex regional pain syndrome. Pain 2011;152(12):2690-2700.

Footnote

The autoantibodies identified in the acute setting included one type, antimuscarinic, which was likely also present in our samples, and another, anti-beta 2, which we did not detect. The laboratory method we used was different to that which was used to identify these acute-setting autoantibodies, however our method was sensitive to activating beta 2 antibodies, and thus should have picked them up had they been present in our samples. Their absence may be either due to geographically different patient populations (German vs. UK), the fact that the acute-setting tests used a immature cell type whereas we used adult cells, or because perhaps autoantibodies produced in the acute setting differ from those in the chronic setting. Of note, earlier investigations in the acute setting had not specifically looked for the new type of antibodies discovered now, so we don’t yet know whether these new antibodies are restricted to the chronic setting.

 

Originally posted on JULY 7, 2015 BY BIM